世界经济 ›› 2021, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (1): 54-80.

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对外直接投资与出口产品质量升级:来自中国的经验证据

余静文1, 彭红枫2, 李濛西3   

  1. 1. 武汉大学经济发展研究中心 华润金控投资有限公司 湖北省武汉市武昌区八一路299号 430072;
    2. 山东财经大学金融学院 山东省济南市舜耕路40号 250014;
    3. 武汉大学经济与管理学院
  • 出版日期:2021-01-10 发布日期:2021-01-23
  • 作者简介:余静文:武汉大学经济发展研究中心华润金控投资有限公司湖北省武汉市武昌区八一路299号430072电子信箱:jwyu@whu.edu.cn;彭红枫:山东财经大学金融学院山东省济南市舜耕路40号250014电子信箱:fhpeng@whu.edu.cn;李濛西:武汉大学经济与管理学院电子信箱:mencylee@whu.edu.cn。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(71661137003)、中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金、武汉大学人文社会科学学术团队“发展经济学研究的新思路”项目的资助。

Outward Direct Investment and Export Quality Upgrading:Empirical Evidence from China

Yu Jingwen1, Peng Hongfeng2, Li Mengxi3   

  • Online:2021-01-10 Published:2021-01-23

摘要: 本文结合中国工业企业数据库、海关数据库以及境外投资企业(机构)名录的数据,从产品提质升级的视角研究对外直接投资对正处于潜在增速下行区间的中国经济的影响。结果表明,对外直接投资显著提升出口产品质量,在进行一系列稳健性检验后,这一结论依然成立,且这种提质升级作用在差异化产品、一般贸易产品中更为突出。从不同类型经营范围的对外直接投资来看,生产制造型对外直接投资能显著提高出口产品质量,而咨询服务型不能产生提质升级作用。此外,对外直接投资的逆向技术溢出效应更多体现在基于已有生产技术复杂度的企业创新能力提升,而非生产复杂度自身的提高。

关键词: 对外直接投资, 质量升级, 逆向技术溢出, 双重差分法

Abstract: Since the belt and road initiative (BRI) was launched, China's scale of outward direct investment (ODI) has shown a significantly growing trend. In this context, we might wonder:what kind of influence can ODI have on the Chinese economy, especially in its current stage of declining potential economic growth? This paper attempts to use the propensity score matching and the difference-in-differences techniques to investigate the ODI effect on product quality upgrading based on a combined dataset formed from the Chinese Industrial Enterprises database, Chinese Customs database and Chinese firms' ODI information database. The results show that:first, ODI can significantly facilitate export product quality upgrading; second, the ODI quality upgrading role is more prominent in differentiated and general trade commodities; third, there is a heterogeneous effect on ODI according to its different business scope. ODI with a production and manufacturing business scope has a significant impact on export product quality upgrading, while presenting it in acquiring market information, R&D, and commerce and sales has no impact. Finally, the ODI reverse technology spillover effect is further reflected in improving firm innovation capabilities based on the complexity of existing production technologies rather than increasing the productive technological complexity itself.

Key words: outward direct investment, quality upgrading, reverse technology spillovers, difference-in-differences method