世界经济 ›› 2017, Vol. 0 ›› Issue (8): 167-192.

• • 上一篇    

大城市生产率优势:集聚、选择还是群分效应

张国峰1, 李强2, 王永进3   

  1. 1. 对外经济贸易大学 国际经济贸易学院国际贸易学系 北京市朝阳区惠新东街10号 100029;
    2. 国家信息中心信息资源开发部;
    3. 南开大学经济学院国际经济贸易系、中国特色社会主义经济建设协同创新中心
  • 出版日期:2017-08-10 发布日期:2017-09-12
  • 作者简介:张国峰,E-mail:nkzgf2012@126.com;李强,E-mail:liq@cei.gov.cn;王永进,E-mail:wyjin17@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(71573141、71673150)的资助。

Productivity Advantage of Big Cities:Effect of Agglomeration, Selection or Sorting?

Zhang Guofeng1, Li Qiang2, Wang Yongjin3   

  • Online:2017-08-10 Published:2017-09-12

摘要: 本文基于1998-2007年中国工业企业数据,运用"无条件分布特征-参数对应"分析方法,通过控制"集聚效应"和"选择效应",考察了企业"群分效应"对大城市生产率优势的影响。研究发现:与多数理论预期相反,大城市集聚了大量中等效率企业,而高效率企业与低效率企业会选择小城市;不考虑群分效应会使对大城市集聚效应的估计产生严重偏误,在生产率分布的25分位点处,集聚效应被高估1.82倍;随着生产率分位点的提高,高估程度不断加剧;大城市中的低效率企业从集聚效应中获益更大。因此,作为企业快速成长的"苗圃",大城市的发展能够为企业提供更好的创业环境。

关键词: 群分效应, 集聚效应, 选择效应, 生产率优势

Abstract: Based on manufacturing firm data(1998-2007)released by China's National Bureau of Statistics(NBS), this paper examines the impact of sorting effect on big cities' productivity advantage using the method of unconditional distribution characteristics and parameters corresponding, through which we can control the agglomeration effect and selection effect. We first find that, contrary to the predictions of most theoretic studies, a large number of medium-efficient firms are concentrated in big cities, while firms with high-or low-efficiency choose small cities.Second, the estimation of agglomeration effect in big cities will be biased when ignoring sorting effect.Specifically, agglomeration effect will be overvalued by 1.82 times at the 1st quartile of productivity distribution, while the degree of overestimation will increase with the rise of quantile.Third, low-efficient firms benefit more from big cities' agglomeration economy, which means that, just like a nursery, big cities can provide a better entrepreneurship environment for firms.Last but not the least, the conclusions above remain valid after a series of robustness tests.

Key words: sorting, agglomeration, selection, productivity advantage

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