世界经济 ›› 2019, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (5): 145-167.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

行业投资、劳动力技能偏好与产业转型升级

宋锦, 李曦晨   

  1. 1. 中国社会科学院世界经济与政治研究所 北京建国门内大街5号;
    2. 中国社会科学院大学研究生院
  • 出版日期:2019-05-10 发布日期:2019-05-21
  • 通讯作者: 宋锦(通讯作者),电子信箱:songjin@cass.org.cn E-mail:songjin@cass.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金"制造业升级对我国就业和收入分配格局的影响研究"(18BJL129)资助。

Industry Investment, Labour Skill Preference and Industrial Transformation and Upgrading

Song Jin, Li Xichen   

  • Online:2019-05-10 Published:2019-05-21

摘要: 本文检验了2002到2013年中国各行业人均固定资产投资变化与劳动力匹配的特征差异,通过考察各行业生产方式的变化推断产业转型升级的趋势和特点。研究发现,中国制造业就业规模不断下降,生产的资本密集度不断提高,但是从劳动力技能结构来看制造业生产没有向技术密集型转变。2002到2007年服务业创造就业主要得益于市场规模扩大,2013年这种情况只存在于批发零售和住宿餐饮业,其他行业不明显。服务业必须进行产业升级才能有效吸纳制造业分流的就业。人均资本投入加深会提高劳动生产率,但是摩擦性失业、劳动力从二产向三产转移、资本对高技能劳动力的替代都是导致平均劳动生产率下降的潜在因素。推动产业升级是提高劳动生产率并且保障就业岗位的唯一途径。

关键词: 行业投资, 固定资产投资, 技能偏好, 产业结构转型, 产业升级

Abstract: This paper examines the feature difference by reconciling the per capita fixed asset investment and the labour force between 2002 and 2013; it investigates changes in the production methods of different industries and deduces the trend and characteristics of industrial transformation and upgrading in China.On the one hand, the study notes that the employment scale of the manufacturing industry has been declining, while on the other, the capital density of the manufacturing industry has been increasing.However, the workers' skill structure shows that the manufacturing industry has not resorted to technology-intensive production.Between 2002 and 2007, employment creation in the tertiary sector was mainly due to the expansion of market size.In 2013, this phenomenon only existed in the wholesale, retail, hospitality and catering industries.Hence, the service industry has to implement industrial upgrading to effectively absorb employment diverted from the industrial sector.An increase in per capita capital investment would boost labour productivity, but frictional unemployment, labour transfer from the secondary to the tertiary sector, and capital replacement by a highly qualified labour force are all potential factors that would lead to a decline in average labour productivity.Improving labour productivity, guaranteeing employment and promoting industrial upgrading are thus ultimately the only solution.

Key words: industry investment, fixed asset investment, skill preference, industrial structural transformation, industrial upgrading

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