世界经济 ›› 2019, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 149-173.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

大城市的低加成率之谜:集聚效应和竞争效应

赵瑞丽1, 尹翔硕2, 孙楚仁3   

  1. 1. 上海对外经贸大学国际经贸学院 上海市松江区文翔路1900号 201600;
    2. 复旦大学经济学院 上海市杨浦区国权路600号 200433;
    3. 西南财经大学国际商学院 四川省成都市温江区西南财经大学通博楼B509 611130
  • 出版日期:2019-04-10 发布日期:2019-04-19
  • 作者简介:赵瑞丽:电子信箱:zhaoruilishift@163.com;孙楚仁:电子信箱:sunchuren@foxmail.com

The Lower Markup in Larger Cities?Agglomeration and Competition Effect

Zhao Ruili1, Yin Xiangshuo2, Sun Churen3   

  • Online:2019-04-10 Published:2019-04-19

摘要: 本文使用1998-2007年中国工业企业数据和中国城市统计年鉴数据,在Combes等(2012)理论框架的基础上,通过引入城市规模和集聚外部性,研究了城市规模扩张对企业加成率及其分布的影响。研究结果表明:无论是否存在集聚外部性或集聚对不同生产率企业的非对称影响,大城市企业的加成率水平都更低;大城市企业加成率的分布比小城市更均匀,其资源配置效率更高;当给定城市规模时,高生产率企业的加成率受城市竞争效应的负向冲击较小。此外,本文将城市规模扩张对企业加成率的影响效应分解为集聚、竞争及选择效应后发现,大城市的竞争和集聚效应的净效应为负,导致大城市企业加成率分布相较于小城市左移。

关键词: 城市规模, 集聚外部性, 企业加成率

Abstract: This paper investigates the agglomeration effect of larger cities on firm markup and their dispersion,following the approach proposed by the theoretical framework of Combes et al.(2012),and introducing urban size and agglomeration externality.The theoretical work shows that the agglomeration of larger cities presents a significantly negative influence on firms' average markup,and this effect is lower in high productivity firms.On the other hand,firm markup distribution is found to be lower in large cities,where they experience a more efficient reallocation of their resources.In order to examine these theoretical predications,matching data from the Chinese Annual Survey of Industrial Enterprises database and Chinese Urban Statistical Yearbook from 1998 to 2007 are used to empirically investigate the relationship between urban size and firm markup,resulting in the verification of these theoretical results.We also deconstruct the agglomeration,competition and selection effects on firm markup distribution in larger cities,finding that the agglomeration net effect is negative,resulting in a lower markup in larger cities.This indicates that agglomeration is an effective tool for improving consumer welfare and resource allocation efficiency.

Key words: urban size, agglomeration externality, firm markup