世界经济 ›› 2019, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (3): 69-93.

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产业政策如何更有效:中国制造业生产率与加成率的证据

戴小勇1, 成力为2   

  1. 1. 西安交通大学经济与金融学院 陕西省西安市雁塔区雁塔西路74号 710061;
    2. 大连理工大学管理与经济学部 辽宁省大连市甘井子区凌工路2号
  • 出版日期:2019-03-10 发布日期:2019-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 戴小勇(通讯作者):电子信箱:xiaoyong.dai@xjtu.edu.cn E-mail:xiaoyong.dai@xjtu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:成力为:电子信箱:cliwei60@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(71804140、71473025)和教育部人文社科基金(18YJC790021)的资助

Towards more Effective Industrial Policies: Productivity and Mark-up Analysis of Chinese Manufacturing Firms

Dai Xiaoyong1, Cheng Liwei2   

  • Online:2019-03-10 Published:2019-03-25

摘要: 本文在测算企业全要素生产率与成本加成率的基础上,从企业与行业层面分别检验政府补贴、税收减免与低利率贷款对受扶持企业以及整个行业的影响,识别何种特征的产业政策更有效。结果发现除税收减免外,政府补贴与低利率贷款总体上均降低了受扶持企业的全要素生产率与成本加成率;产业政策对同行业内企业的差异化程度越低、越有利于市场竞争,政策效果越好;体现普惠性与促进市场竞争的产业政策能够激励企业创新,改善企业间的资源配置效率,发挥企业进入与退出市场对加总生产率的促进作用。中国未来应减少选择性产业政策,转向更具普惠性与兼容市场竞争的政策,发挥政府与市场功能的互补性。

关键词: 产业政策, 全要素生产率, 成本加成率, 中国制造业企业

Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of government subsides,tax exemptions and low interest loans on the productivity and price-cost markups at both firm and industry levels,and tries to identify which types of industrial policy are more effective.Results point to negative impacts of government subsidies and low interest loans on firm-level markup and productivity,while the impact of tax incentives is found to be significantly positive.Industrial policies that are implemented more dispersed across firms and foster competition are found to be more effective.Inclusive and pro-competitive industrial policies can stimulate innovation,improve the efficiency of across-firm resource allocation and facilitate firm entry/exit,which in turn lead to aggregate productivity growth.The results imply that China should move away from selective industrial policy instruments and resort to less-discriminatory and competition-friendly industrial policies.Understanding the complementary role between the government and market is essential for enhanced policy design and implementation.

Key words: industrial policy, productivity, price-cost markups, Chinese manufacturing firms

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