世界经济 ›› 2018, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (12): 49-72.

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最低工资和出口的国内附加值:来自中国企业的证据

崔晓敏1, 余淼杰2, 袁东3   

  1. 1. 中国社会科学院世界经济与政治研究所;
    2. 北京大学国家发展研究院 北京市海淀区颐和园路5号北京大学国家发展研究院 100871;
    3. 天弘基金管理有限公司
  • 出版日期:2018-12-10 发布日期:2018-12-17
  • 通讯作者: 余淼杰,电子邮箱:mjyu@nsd.pku.edu.cn E-mail:mjyu@nsd.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:崔晓敏,子信箱:cuixiaomin@cass.org.cn;袁东,电子信箱:alfredyuan123@foxmail.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年基金(71625007)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(71573006)以及教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地(15JJD780001)的资助。

Minimum Wage and Domestic Value-Added of Exports: Evidence from Chinese Firms

Cui Xiaomin1, Yu Miaojie2, Yuan Dong3   

  • Online:2018-12-10 Published:2018-12-17

摘要: 本文基于中国2000-2007年企业层面微观数据,研究了最低工资上涨对中国企业出口国内附加值比的影响及其作用机制,最低工资通过要素替代和成本加成两个渠道影响企业出口的国内附加值比。一方面,当最低工资上涨时,直接受约束的企业可用其他生产要素进行替代,但替代的有效性取决于企业对低技术劳动力的依赖程度;另一方面,最低工资影响企业的定价决策,进而会促使其调整出口国内附加值比。经验研究发现,最低工资上涨对加工贸易企业、低生产率企业和低资本劳动比企业的负向影响显著小于其他企业;最低工资上涨会使出口企业的成本加成率下降,进而降低其出口国内附加值比。

关键词: 最低工资, 国内附加值, 要素替代, 成本加成

Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of increasing minimum wage on the domestic value-added ratios (DVARs hereafter) of exporting enterprises in China. The theoretical framework shows that an increase in the minimum wage will influence DVARs through factor substitution channel and price markup channel. For one thing, when minimum wages rise, exporters which are directly affected will use more capital or intermediate goods in place of these workers, but the effectiveness of these alternative options depends on unskilled labor intensity of the production function. For another, minimum wage will lead to an adjustment of DVARs through affecting firms' pricing decisions. This paper uses China's micro-enterprise data during the period 2000 to 2007 to test theoretical expectations. We find that, first, compared with others, the negative effects of increasing minimum wage on processing exporters, firms with low productivity efficiency or low capital-labor ratios tend to be weakened; second, an increase in minimum wage will result in a significant decrease in firms' price markups, which will further bring about a decrease in DVARs.

Key words: minimum wage, domestic value-added ratios, factor substitution, price markup

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