世界经济 ›› 2016, Vol. ›› Issue (12): 121-142.

• 马克思主义研究专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国工业企业的生产率差异和配置效率损失

曲玥   

  1. 中国社会科学院人口与劳动经济研究所 北京 100028
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-01 出版日期:2016-12-10 发布日期:2017-01-03
  • 作者简介:曲玥,电子信箱:quyue@cass.org.cn。
  • 基金资助:
    国家“万人计划”之青年拔尖人才支持计划(2014年)“中等收入阶段的生产率提升”项目、人力资源和社会保障部留学人员科技活动项目择优资助(2015年)“经济新常态下生产率获取源泉”项目。

The Productivity Differences and the Losses of Allocative Efficiency of China's Industries

Qu Yue   

  • Received:2016-08-01 Online:2016-12-10 Published:2017-01-03

摘要: 本文采用中国规模以上工业企业数据,对生产率的差异和配置效率进行了估算。结果表明,在静态方面,劳动生产率的分布更为均衡,其与企业规模的正相关关系也更强,因而劳动的配置优于资本。在动态方面,要素的错配主要体现在行业和所有制两个领域;在行业、区域和所有制三个领域上,劳动的配置损失为1%左右,而资本的配置损失约为20%。此外,源于要素在企业间流动的劳动配置改善可达13.6%,资本的配置改善可达628%以上。未来生产率的提高有待于资本市场改革的深化,为企业创造更好的制度环境。

关键词: 生产率, 配置效率, 工业企业

Abstract: Based on the above-scale firm data, we calculate the productivity and the allocative efficiency of China's industries. The results about the static allocative efficiency shows that the labor productivity (MPL), compared with the capital productivity (MPK), has more balanced distribution and is more positively related to firms' scales, thus exhibiting better allocative status. For the dynamic aspect, the misallocation of the factor is mainly reflected in industries and ownerships. In the fields of industries, regions and ownerships, the loss from capital misallocation can be as high as 20%, while the loss caused by labor misallocation is about 1%. Furthermore, we notice that there is a large potential to improve allocative efficiency. The efficiency gained from flowing factor among enterprises can be 13.6% for labor reallocation and 628% for capital reallocation. In the future, to enhance productivity growth, China can carry out a deeper reform of capital market, where factors can flow freely among firms, and create a better institutional environment, where firms can make more flexible and independent decisions.

Key words: productivity, allocative efficiency, industry

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