世界经济 ›› 2020, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (7): 3-25.

• •    下一篇

南稻北麦、家庭分工与女性社会地位

丁从明, 董诗涵, 杨悦瑶   

  1. 重庆大学公共管理学院 公共经济与公共政策研究中心 重庆市沙坪坝区沙正街174号 400044
  • 出版日期:2020-07-10 发布日期:2020-07-17
  • 作者简介:丁从明,电子邮箱:hayekting@126.com;董诗涵,电子邮箱:helendsh@163.com;杨悦瑶,电子邮箱:YuetyiuYang@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    本文得到重庆大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项项目(2019CDSKXYGG0043、2018CDJSK01XK06)的赞助。

Rice Theory, Housework Division and Female Labour Force Participation

Ding Congming, Dong Shihan, Yang Yueyao   

  • Online:2020-07-10 Published:2020-07-17

摘要: "南稻北麦"的种植差异决定了传统中国南北方不同的家庭分工模式与女性社会地位。南方精耕细作的水稻种植发挥女性在农业生产过程中的比较优势,促进水稻区女性的劳动参与,并进一步提高女性的家庭和社会地位。与之相对应,北方小麦种植对体力的更高要求,提高了男性的比较优势。北方女性在农业种植中的较低参与和对家庭的更多投入,进而形成"男主外、女主内"的家庭分工模式。本文利用CFPS等微观数据库的研究表明,相对小麦区,水稻区女性承担更少的家务,拥有更高的家庭决策地位和外部劳动参与率。本文的研究为理解女性社会地位的区域差异提供了新视角。

关键词: 南稻北麦, 女性地位, 家庭分工

Abstract: Regional differences in agricultural crops in China, namely "Southern Rice and Northern Wheat", have long been determining different patterns of domestic work and female status within Chinese society. Rice planting in southern China is highly labour-intensive, enabling women to gain greater comparative advantages in specific stages over men, promoting female labour force participation in these areas, shaping the housework division pattern within the family, and thus granting women bargaining power in the family. By contrast, wheat planting in the north has higher physical endurance requirements, which improve men's comparative advantages. As a result, women have lower participation within agricultural activities in the north and tend to perform a greater number of household chores, manifesting a classic housework division pattern. As the proverb says, "men outside the home, women inside"; wheat planting reduces female domestic status and their external labour market participation rate. Using a dataset from the CFPS database, the empirical findings in this paper suggest that women in the area of rice paddies perform fewer domestic tasks in relation to women in the wheat producing regions; they have greater bargaining power in family decision-making and a higher rate of external participation. From a farming perspective, these findings explain the regional disparities in the social status of women in contemporary China.

Key words: rice theory, female labour force participation, housework division